For John, BLUF: Federal Budget Wonk stuff here. Nothing to see here; just move along.
The Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller), the Honorable Robert F Hale, the DoD CFO, has an on-line PowerPoint presenation on reprogramming of monies that come from Congress to the Department of Defense: "Budget Execution: Process and Flexibility". It is an OK briefing, but it does provide a lot of insight for those who have not been emersed in the process in the past. For instance, here is a discussion of the role of Congress in the initial budget process:
This phase starts in late January or February, when the Congress receives the President's Budget. The Congress does not vote on the President's Budget itself, and it does not enact a budget of its own, as such. It considers the President's Budget proposals, passes overall revenue and spending plans called a "budget resolution", and enacts the regular appropriation acts and other laws that control spending and receipts.The DoD Comptroller web site has lots of semi-useful information available, like the Fiscal Year 2013 DoD Budget.
A final note. With the Federal Government it is a two step process. For a project to move forward, Defense or non-Defense, Congress provides both an Authorization (to spend the money) and an Appropriation (the money to spend). Thus, an Authorizing Committee and an Appropriations Committee.
Regards — Cliff